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HomeExpanded ConsciousnessThe Element of Ether: A Journey Through Time and Traditions

The Element of Ether: A Journey Through Time and Traditions

Abstract: This article explores the concept of the classical element Ether across various cultural cosmologies, including Alchemical, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Greek, European, Celtic, Japanese, Tibetan, Chinese, Indian, African, and Indigenous peoples. We will analyze the qualities attributed to Ether and its connection to particular deities in each of these cosmologies, drawing on relevant sources to support our analysis.


The classical element Ether, also known as Akasha or quintessence, has been a subject of fascination across human history and cultures. Ether represents the essence of life, the space in which all other elements exist, and is often considered the fifth element. In this paper, we will delve into the diverse qualities attributed to Ether in various cosmologies and its connections to deities.

  1. Alchemical Tradition

In Alchemical tradition, Ether is the fifth element, often referred to as the quintessence (literally, “fifth essence”). Ether is described as a subtle and intangible substance, permeating all matter and acting as a bridge between the material and spiritual realms (Burckhardt, 1967). The quintessence is considered the foundation of all other elements and essential to the process of transmutation, turning base metals into gold (Principe, 2013).

  1. Ancient Egyptian Cosmology

In Ancient Egypt, Ether was not explicitly recognized as a separate element. However, Egyptian cosmology includes the concept of “ka,” an intangible life force connected to each individual (Hornung, 1996). Ka can be seen as analogous to Ether, as it represents the spiritual essence of life and the energy that sustains the universe (Allen, 2013). In Egyptian mythology, the god Ptah is closely related to the concept of ka, as he is the creator god responsible for shaping the universe and giving life to all beings (Hornung, 1996).

  1. Ancient Greek Cosmology

In Ancient Greek cosmology, Ether is called Aether, representing the pure essence that fills the upper regions of the cosmos (Kirk, Raven, & Schofield, 1983). Aether is the substance that composes the stars and planets, and is considered the medium through which light travels (Couprie, 2011). In Greek mythology, Aether is personified as a primordial deity and the offspring of Erebus (Darkness) and Nyx (Night) (Hesiod, 1983). Aether’s counterpart is Hemera, the goddess of day and light, and the two are responsible for the cycle of day and night (Ovid, 1951).

  1. European Cosmology

In European cosmology, Ether has been associated with the concept of the “celestial spheres” and the aetherial realm (Grant, 1971). Medieval philosophers believed that the universe was composed of concentric spheres, with the Earth at the center and the celestial spheres beyond (Cohen, 1994). Ether was thought to be the substance that filled the space between these spheres and enabled the planets to move in their orbits (Lindberg, 1992).

  1. Celtic Cosmology

Celtic cosmology does not explicitly mention Ether, but it does contain similar concepts. The Celts believed in the existence of the “Otherworld,” a realm that coexists with our world but is usually invisible (MacCulloch, 1991). The Otherworld is inhabited by deities, spirits, and the souls of the deceased (Nagy, 1999). The concept of the Otherworld can be seen as analogous to Ether, as it represents the space in which the physical and spiritual realms intersect (MacK illop, 2004). In Celtic mythology, the god Manannán mac Lir is associated with the Otherworld, as he is the guardian of the gates between the two realms and the lord of the seas (MacCulloch, 1991).

  1. Japanese Cosmology

In Japanese cosmology, Ether is associated with the concept of “Kū” (空), one of the five elements in Japanese Buddhism (Tamaki, 2001). Kū represents the void or emptiness and is considered the source of all existence (Yamasaki, 1988). Kū is closely related to the concept of “ma” (間), which refers to the space or interval between objects, events, and concepts (Pilgrim, 1986). The deity associated with Kū is Kūkai, the founder of the Shingon school of Buddhism, who is believed to have achieved enlightenment and become one with the universal void (Hakeda, 1972).

  1. Tibetan Cosmology

In Tibetan cosmology, Ether is known as “Nam-mkha” (ནམ་མཁའ་), which translates to “sky” or “space” (Tucci, 1980). Nam-mkha is considered the source of all phenomena and the ground of existence (Snellgrove, 1987). It is the space in which the physical and spiritual realms interpenetrate, and is often associated with the concept of emptiness in Tibetan Buddhism (Hopkins, 1996). The deity associated with Nam-mkha is Samantabhadra, the primordial Buddha who represents the Dharmakaya, the ultimate nature of reality (Kapstein, 2000).

  1. Chinese Cosmology

In Chinese cosmology, Ether is not considered a separate element, but its qualities can be found in the concept of “Qì” (氣), which translates to “vital energy” or “life force” (Kohn, 1993). Qì is an essential component of all living beings and is believed to flow through the body via channels called “meridians” (Unschuld, 1985). Qì is also considered the fundamental substance that makes up the universe and is responsible for the formation of matter and energy (Sivin, 1995). The deity associated with Qì is Taiyi, the supreme god of the cosmos, who is believed to have created the universe from the primordial Qì (Chen, 1989).

  1. Indian Cosmology

In Indian cosmology, Ether is known as “Akasha” (आकाश), one of the five elements (Pancha Mahabhuta) in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism (Chapple, 2000). Akasha represents space, the infinite void that contains all other elements (Flood, 1996). It is considered the substrate of all existence and the medium through which sound travels (Klostermaier, 1994). In Hinduism, the deity associated with Akasha is Brahma, the creator god responsible for the manifestation of the universe (O’Flaherty, 1981).

  1. African Cosmology

In African cosmology, Ether is not explicitly recognized as an element, but its qualities can be found in the concept of “Ashe” or “Ase,” a Yoruba term for the life force or spiritual power that permeates the universe (Ajayi, 1996). Ashe is the essence that binds all existence and is present in all things, both living and inanimate (Abimbola, 1976). The deity associated with Ashe is Olodumare, the supreme god of the Yoruba pantheon, who is believed to have created the universe and possesses the ultimate source of Ashe (Idowu, 1994).

  1. Indigenous Peoples’ Cosmology

In the cosmologies of various Indigenous peoples, Ether is not explicitly mentioned as a separate element. However, its qualities can be found in the concept of a life force or spiritual energy that permeates the universe. For example, in the cosmology of the Australian Aboriginal people, Ether can be linked to the concept of “Dreamtime” or “Tjukurpa,” the timeless dimension of reality in which the ancestral spirits created the world (Strehlow, 1971). In Native American cosmology, Ether can be associated with “Wakan Tanka” or “Great Mystery” in Lakota spirituality, representing the ultimate source of existence and the unity of all things (Powers, 1977).


Throughout history and across various cultures, the classical element Ether has taken on different names and characteristics. Despite the diversity in its representation, Ether has consistently been associated with the essence of life, the space in which all other elements exist, and the bridge between the material and spiritual realms. Its presence in the cosmologies of Alchemical, Ancient Egyptian, Ancient Greek, European, Celtic, Japanese, Tibetan, Chinese, Indian, African, and Indigenous peoples highlights the universality of the concept and its significance in human understanding of the nature of reality.


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