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HomeExpanded ConsciousnessThe Classical Element Air: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of its Significance and Attributes

The Classical Element Air: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of its Significance and Attributes

Abstract: This article explores the qualities attributed to the Air element in various cultural contexts, including Alchemical, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, European, Celtic, Japanese, Tibetan, Chinese, Indian, African, and other indigenous peoples’ cosmologies. This article also examines the connection between the Air element and specific deities in these traditions. The analysis highlights the similarities and differences in the understanding of the Air element across cultures and the implications of these beliefs on the human experience.


The classical element Air is one of the fundamental building blocks of the natural world and has been recognized by diverse cultures throughout history. While its specific attributes and associations may vary across traditions, Air is consistently identified as an essential force that governs various aspects of life. This paper explores the qualities and attributes of the Air element in several cultural contexts, illuminating common themes and divergences in the understanding of this elemental force.

  1. Alchemical Tradition: In the Western alchemical tradition, Air is one of the four primary elements, alongside Fire, Water, and Earth. Air is considered a masculine and active element, associated with the qualities of intellect, communication, and movement (Burckhardt, 1967). It is symbolized by an upward-pointing triangle bisected by a horizontal line, representing the dual nature of the Air element (Jung, 1968).
  2. Ancient Egypt: In Ancient Egyptian cosmology, Air was associated with the god Shu, the god of the atmosphere and the space between the earth and the sky. Shu was considered the force that separated the earth (Geb) and the sky (Nut), enabling life to exist (Hart, 1986). In this context, Air was seen as a vital component in maintaining balance and order within the universe.
  3. Ancient Greece: In Ancient Greek philosophy, Air was one of the four classical elements, along with Earth, Water, and Fire. The pre-Socratic philosopher Anaximenes posited that Air was the primary substance from which all other elements and matter were derived (Kirk, Raven, & Schofield, 1983). Air was linked with breath, and by extension, life and the soul. Aristotle also associated Air with the qualities of warmth and moistness, placing it between the dry and cold Earth and the hot and wet Water elements (Aristotle, 1941).
  4. European Tradition: In European medieval and Renaissance thought, Air was one of the four humors that governed the human body and temperament. As one of the four elements, Air was linked to the sanguine temperament, characterized by optimism, enthusiasm, and a love of social interaction (Klibansky, Panofsky, & Saxl, 1964). Air was also associated with the intellect, thought, and communication, as well as the season of spring and the East direction (Lindberg, 1978).
  5. Celtic Cosmology: In Celtic cosmology, Air was associated with the east, the direction of the rising sun, and new beginnings. It was linked to communication, intellect, and inspiration, as well as the bardic arts of poetry, storytelling, and song (Green, 1992). Air was also connected with certain deities, such as Lugh, the Irish god of skill and mastery, and Arianrhod, the Welsh goddess of the moon, stars, and sky (Ellis, 1991).
  6. Japanese Tradition: In Japanese cosmology, Air is not explicitly recognized as one of the five classical elements (Earth, Water, Fire, Wind, and Void).

However, the concept of Wind (風, kaze) bears similarities to the Air element in other traditions. Wind was considered an essential force, governing movement, change, and transformation (Kojima, 1994). The Shinto god Fujin was the deity associated with wind, often depicted carrying a bag of winds to disperse across the earth (Aston, 1905).

  1. Tibetan Cosmology: In Tibetan cosmology, Air is one of the five primary elements (Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Space) that form the basis of existence. Air, known as ‘rlung’ in Tibetan, is related to movement, change, and life force energy (Tsering, 2005). The practice of Tibetan medicine considers imbalances in the Air element to be responsible for certain physical and mental disorders, including anxiety, insomnia, and restlessness (Clifford, 1990).
  2. Chinese Tradition: In Chinese cosmology, the concept of Air is integrated into the broader understanding of the five elements (Wood, Fire, Earth, Metal, and Water). While Air is not explicitly recognized as a separate element, its qualities are represented by the Wood element (木, mù), which is associated with growth, expansion, and upward movement (Kaptchuk, 2000). The Wood element is connected to the liver and gallbladder in Chinese medicine, and imbalances in this element can lead to emotional issues such as anger and frustration (Maciocia, 1989).
  3. Indian Tradition: In Indian cosmology, Air is one of the five great elements (Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Ether) that form the foundation of all existence. Known as Vayu in Sanskrit, Air is linked to movement, life force energy (prana), and the sense of touch (Aurobindo, 1990). In the Hindu pantheon, the god Vayu is the deity associated with wind, responsible for the breath of life and the circulation of energies within the universe (Zimmer, 1946). The Air element also plays a crucial role in the Ayurvedic system of medicine, with imbalances in the Air element leading to various health issues, particularly those related to the nervous system (Lad, 2002).
  4. African Tradition: In African cosmologies, the concept of Air varies significantly across diverse cultural traditions. In the Yoruba tradition of West Africa, the deity Oya is associated with wind and storms, embodying change, transformation, and upheaval (Olupona, 1991). In the Dogon tradition of Mali, the deity Nommo is linked to the atmosphere, breath, and life force energy, acting as a mediator between the celestial and earthly realms (Griaule & Dieterlen, 1965).
  5. Indigenous Peoples’ Cosmologies: Air is also recognized as an essential force in various indigenous peoples’ cosmologies. In Native American traditions, for example, Air is often connected to the East direction, representing the breath of life, inspiration, and new beginnings (Eliade, 1959). In Australian Aboriginal cosmology, the Rainbow Serpent is associated with the wind and is believed to have created the world through its breath (Berndt, 1951).


The classical element Air is a central component of many ancient and indigenous cosmologies. While its specific attributes and associations may vary across cultural contexts, Air is consistently identified as an essential force governing various aspects of life, including movement, change, communication, and life force energy. The connection between the Air element and specific deities highlights the deep-rooted significance of Air in human thought and experience.


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